On Reading Legend in Fanon

Warning: What follows is an initial reaction to the opening chapters of Frantz Fanon’s “Black Skins, White Masks.” I have not got past Chapter One, though I fully intend to read this book in its entirety.

Rambles, race-talk, post-colonial theory, and a relation to the Arthur Project follow.


After giving my presentation on my research last week, I realized that my study of the post-colonial implications of my project were severely lacking. I set aside today in my research schedule to begin to bridge that gap, as well as to collect more sources. I began today with a book that is generally discussing the use of literature in post-colonial theory, and how to better analyze literature from this perspective. But this felt far too abstract. So I moved to read the author that many consider the instigator of post-colonial theory: Frantz Fanon.

Fanon was born in 1925, and died of Leukemia in 1961, but his legacy stands firm in post-colonial and cultural theory. A native of Dominique, Fanon became a psychiatrist after studying in France. He used much of his professional writing career to analyze the psychological affects of colonization on both the imperial forces and the colonized. His two most famous works are “Black Skins, White Masks” (which I began reading today) and “The Wretched of the Earth.” I have read selections from these books before, but have been meaning to read both books in their entirety.

The premise of “Black Skins, White Masks” is basically the book in which Fanon introduces and explains his theories on the psychology of colonization. In the introduction to my edition of the book, Kwame Anthony Appiah states that there are three intertwined themes in Fanon’s writing:

1. Critique of ethnopsychiatry, which aimed to provide an accoutn of the mental life of colonized peoples, and the Eurocentrism of psychoanalysis

2. A dialogue with Negritude, then the dominant system of thought among black francophone individuals

3. The development of a political philosophy for decolonization that starts with an account of the psychological harm that colonization had produced.

Kwame Anthony Appiah, in the forward to the 2008 Grove Press edition

Negritude was a philosophical theory developed by black intellectuals in the 1930s. These writers’ fundamental beliefs were that the African diaspora could come together around common black heritage, arguing that this was the best tool to use to fight against French dominion. Fanon has so far argued that black people in African colonies, at the time of his writing, should focus on a “progressive” agenda of adapting modern European culture and philosophical ideas. Again, I haven’t finished the book so I’m not sure how this aspect of his argument will evolve.

I am not sure whether I entirely agree with this. I recognize that my moment in time, and my identity as a white, middle-class woman from the United States, places me in a position that is very far removed from the experiences and political climate in which Fanon was writing. At the same time, I think that there is something inherently problematic with writing that an oppressed people should take on the philosophies of the conqueror – in a way, isn’t that also another form of colonization? And yet, to be able to use the arguments of the oppressor against them, to show the blatant hypocrisies of the colonial hegemony, is a powerful political move.

(Note: I’m not talking about the arguments of white allies in the cause of decolonization – that kind of dialogue is important and necessary. What I am talking about is the use of philosophers – Paine, Rousseau, Locke, etc. – that talk about equality and freedom but also supported imperial expansion and slavery.)

In the first chapter, “The Black Man and Language,” Fanon is discussing the cultural implications of language. Many in post-colonial theory talk about the necessity for a radical literature in the native languages of the formerly (or currently) colonized nation. Fanon writes in French. I am reading an English translation. He begins this chapter with the assertion that “To speak means being able to use a certain syntax and possessing the morphology of such and such a language, but it means above all assuming a culture and bearing the weight of a civilization” (1). He must, as a means of necessity, be aware of the political implications of writing in French. He is also entering into a particularly French, colonial dialogue.

Which is, I suppose, where the Arthur Project comes back into the equation.

A language is shaped not only by the words, sounds, and grammatical structure of its sentences; it is also inherently dependent upon the myths and beings in the history of that language. Anyone who has studied a language (that is not their own) in depth should begin to realize that language shapes the way that people are able to think. For example: Certain cultures put certain ideas above others. There are more words for snow, with more emotional depth and meaning, in Inuit or Aleutian than there are in English.

There are also countless sayings in languages that are based on a common cultural history. Think of all the words in the English language that are derived from the names of Greek and Roman gods/goddesses.

I’m not saying that Arthurian legend has had a terribly large impact on the English language structurally (though, after reading Mallory, I will never look at the word “to smite” the same way). But if I were to say “We shall make this a Round Table discussion” there are certain implications. Not that we will be discussing Arthur’s Round Table, but that all participants in the discussion have equal weight. The cultural capitol of the Arthurian legends is huge.

John F. Kennedy and his administration referred to his white house as “Camelot.” Part of my research will mean understanding what exactly that meant in the cultural context of the 1960s. Kennedy was connecting the White House to both Arthurian Legend, and then connecting Arthurian Legend to the legend of the United States – all that “City On A Hill” business. It’s my job to place that concept of the White House as Camelot in conversation with Kennedy’s foreign aid and development policies, and then to understand how it is that legend backs up foreign policy and the politics of a culture, and how that culture then interacts with the global community.

This post is getting far out of hand – mostly, it’s for my own understanding of the issues. Clearly, I’m not at a very solid point on this argument, it’s still formulating. Things have taken a turn for the Interesting.

NCUR + Real Life

I’m back from NCUR! All in all, i would say it was a good, if frustrating and stressful, experience.

I gave my speech yesterday, and the room was pretty packed. The second presenter didn’t show up, so we had lots of extra time. After I finished presenting my paper (which I had labored over all week), there were about 5 minutes of Q&A, and then the moderator said that we should just continue the Q&A session until people ran out of questions.

I’d say that I’m glad I freaked out so much about the speech – people asked tough questions, but I had the knowledge to be able to answer them thoroughly after poring over my notes for a full week straight. I also had a pretty broad audience, from people who were there to learn about wind energy to people who wanted to hear more about American Indian issues. All in all, I feel really good about the way it went, and feel more equipped to write a paper that could (potentially) be published now.

Some things I have discovered:

1. I am an incredibly relaxed traveler. This is something I’ve kind of known for a while, but it was reinforced by this trip in particular.

2. I love mountains, and would love to live in a place that has them.

3. Missoula is an interesting place. I wish I’d had more time to explore it (I had to prep for my own presentation, as well as see other presentations). It was also hard to get around, because our hotel was all the way out in a weird hotel/chain store section of the town. Note to self: Go back to Missoula at some point.

4. I usually know what I’m talking about when presenting my own research. I should trust my capabilities.

In non-research related news, I came home and crashed last night. I woke up this morning to discover that our fridge had died at some point while I was gone. I don’t know when it died, but everything in the freezer was completely thawed.

After this unpleasant discover, I spent the morning cleaning out the fridge, and talking to the landlady about it. She’s going to replace the fridge and we won’t have to pay for it, but damn. That really sucks. Among my long list of things I didn’t want to do today, that has to be pretty high up there.

At least I finally got my books on India! I can start learning the devanagari script, and start reading about this amazing place that I’m going to next semester. Summer is so close I can taste it, and I’m probably going to be so busy this next month that summer will come before I know it.

Life is looking good, despite my issues with the fridge. Tonight is for finishing up small projects before the week, and then watching the beginning of Season 3 of Mad Men. All in all, life is pretty awesome.

Pictures from St. Louis coming soon! I swear! I just need to find my camera chord …

Research Research Research

This week has been an amazing one as far as research goes. I am proud to announce …

My research project was chosen again for a Collaborative Research Grant!

This is my victory face:

I took this last summer on the trip to South Dakota to interview folks for research. It seemed fitting to resurrect it.

I’m really, really lucky to have received a grant again this year. There were 105 applicants, and they could only accept 25. I would have been incredibly crushed if I hadn’t got this grant, not only for financial reasons ($2500 would have been a lot of money not to make this summer), but because this is the infamous Arthur Project.

For those of you that haven’t known about this project, it’s been about three years in the making. This summer, I will get to work very closely with one of my very favorite English professors, on a project that has been growing since I was a freshman in college.

To be specific, I will be researching the critical theoretical implications of the popularity of the legend of King Arthur in a “post-colonial” society. In other, less academic words: Why the hell is King Arthur still a major cultural force when the myth has been used for centuries to excuse imperialism and we have “moved past imperialism”? (Irony quotes signify my skepticism that we have truly moved past in imperialist society.)

So this summer it will be all King Arthur, allllll the tiiiiiime. I’m sure my nerdery will leak into this blog.

But this also means that I have to get my ass in gear. Marcela, my adviser, is going to kick my ass in a very good way. Because there is such a rich history of Arthurian retellings, she’s requiring that I get through the major medieval, Renaissance, Romantic, and Modern texts before the summer begins. Which means that I have to read all four Arthurian novels Chretien de Troyes wrote, The Idylls of the King, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, as well as attempt to track down the early Arthurian films (like, silent movie-early). To be a good Arthurian critic, I have to have this wide grounding in the topics.

Which is exciting, but the grant starts in June. Eeek! So if you don’t see much of me, there’s a reason …


In other news, I am currently sitting in a cafe, working on research and drinking far too much coffee to be legal. Seriously. This is becoming a social problem.

This week I head out to Missoula, Montana to present my research from last summer at the National Conference of Undergraduate Research. This is incredibly exciting. I’d talked about this in an earlier post.

This is the conference that is pretty important. And by “pretty important,” I mean that there will be grad school scouts there. It’s pretty much the biggest conference on Undergraduate Research in the country, and so I have to be on top of my game.

Which is kinda scary, considering my research ended 8 months ago.

So now I’m hurriedly trying to become an expert in my field again, before we set off. Plus side? I get to ride in an airplane. And … see Montana? Mountains! Mountains, Gandalf!

And the whole thing will be much more enjoyable if I can get a good, early idea of my presentation. Even writing it now seems a bit last-minute. So wish me luck! I should really get back to it.

But I leave with a promise! My main computer is finally back from the shop, so I should have some pics up soon from my St. Louis trip.

Until then, fare thee well!